Both players start out by moving their kings' pawns two spaces and attacking the other player's pawn with the knight. White takes black's pawn, hoping for black to exchange. Instead, black moves his queen's pawn out to attack the knight, forcing white to waste his turn by retreating. White retreats his knight, and black takes white's pawn. White moves his queen's pawn out to regain the center, freeing his queen's bishop at the same time. Black moves his d-pawn up to defend his knight. White moves his bishop to attack the knight and enable castling. Black develops his bishop, also enabling himself to castle. White castles, and black moves his knight, attacking the queen's pawn. White moves his rook to the black king's file. Black moves his white-square bishop to pin the knight to his queen. The knight can now no longer counter-attack the threat to his queen's pawn. To protect his pawn, white moves his queen's bishop's pawn. Black defends his knight with 9. ... f4. White moves out his queen, attacking two pawns at the same time. Black castles to bring his rook into play, and the middlegame starts.